How should a city complete a complete auto driver? How do people go?
In all kinds of companies and the &ldquo of the tuyere; hard work ” under the automatic driving, we are getting closer and closer. But it may not be just the relationship between people and cars, and road traffic itself will have to change with the arrival of autopilot.
Recently, the National Association of urban traffic officials (hereinafter referred to as &ldquo, NACTO&rdquo) issued a report on the future blueprint of the driverless city. The report gives a comprehensive and detailed introduction to &mdash, &mdash, and how the future automated traffic will be integrated into the whole urban building environment, and how these changes are accepted and popularized.
Why will the area of the road be smaller in the future? Why does the road look more like a garden in the city? What kind of changes will happen to our personal life? In this report, Lei Feng network (public number: Lei Feng net) has been compiled and analyzed on the basis of the original report.
The National Association of urban transportation officials (hereinafter referred to as &ldquo, NACTO&rdquo) is a non-profit organization and an alliance of urban transport departments. It aims to provide safe, sustainable, convenient and reasonable transportation options to support strong economic and convenient life needs. It represents the views of the big cities on the local, regional and national traffic problems. At the same time, it is also committed to improving the practice of street design and transportation by establishing common vision and sharing data to conduct regular exchanges in seminars and meetings and in member cities.
At present, NACTO is &ldquo in the US and &rdquo in the member city. There are more than 20 Atlanta, Austen, Boston, Chicago, Houston, New York, Santiago and Toronto, Vancouver and so on.
A vision: the highway is no longer restricted, but the human living space:
The report,  , NACTO; the chief member of the Executive Committee of New York Municipal Bureau of transportation Commissioner Janette Sadik-Khan first proposed to her city unmanned traffic vision — — people-oriented, which is the basis of the unmanned city blueprint.
The new transport technology, streets will be redesigned to meet human needs: first the sidewalk will become the shared business space, and not just for parking; driving lanes will only take what they need the road space, but also can efficiently carry passengers. Finally, the urban space will focus on the &lsquo that can really move the city, and mobile &rsquo, such as public transportation, walking, cycling and sharing amusement facilities.
Most importantly, the blueprint actually sees the coming self driving as a good opportunity to transform the streets for human beings, not just a revolution triggered by technology.
Two, policy ideas and action
1, build six standards
There is no doubt that every city needs a strong policy to guide the pilotless future. According to the six guidelines mentioned above, the following are the key steps that the NACTO members are taking and implementing to build the future of an automated city.
1) set sidewalks and speed limits for bicycles and driving vehicles (20 miles per hour).
2) use the third party platform to collect the anonymity and data of vehicles running in the city, so as to identify dangerous areas and redesign streets for safe operation.
3) establish the operational and geometric principles of urban streets, and determine the safe operation of driving vehicles and unmanned vehicles.
The flow of
1) the establishment of the city's AV working group, all municipal departments must participate in the planning of unmanned vehicles.
2) motivate the initiative: building streets should give priority to sustainable and proactive models, such as transit, walking and cycling.
3) regional cooperation, promote internal operability: the overall coverage of all areas of the city, the integration of it on a platform to facilitate the use of customers.
1) stop the road expansion: update the existing mode of transportation and reduce the demand for roads by increasing the efficiency of automation.
2) ride in the transfer Lane: design the travel route for a large number of transport services to improve the personnel throughput of the key aisles.
3) to use do not make full use of the road, people walking along the sidewalk to ensure the safety and comfort of
Real time management of
1) Street data management: using the third party data platform to safely and seamlessly exchange the data on the street, and support the street management in real time.
2) price containment: create delivery and get off management plans to maximize user experience and reduce road risks that pedestrians may encounter.
3) optimize coding and access: keep a dynamic, digital, and visual sidewalk inventoryIn order to realize the democratization of the sidewalk.
With the least amount of vehicles carrying more passengers:
1) make preparations for future parking without parking: reduce parking restrictions in zoning, develop prototypes with adaptable parking lots and infrastructure, and facilitate future transformation.
2) enhanced Electrification: through the allocation of space for charging piles and congestion pricing based on occupancy rates to support the use of shared electric vehicles.
3) strategic investment: through the laying of a large number of routes to strengthen the modernization of the partnership.
The public interest to guide individual action
1) clear the obstacles of public-private partnerships: use “ carpool clause ” create replicable qualification requirements, so as to eliminate public and private barriers that once worked in American cities.
2) attract public participation: increase technology development and the pilot project of the transparency of
3) the city is part of the automation. It is impossible to discuss the operation of the future technology.
2, city streets in the practice of the transition period and the future prospects of
Although the pace of technological change is fast, the city's infrastructure changes are gradual in the process of meeting unmanned vehicles. For example, urban streets and sidewalks have become an important place for testing new policies, technologies, materials and street types. In fact, in 2017, many cities in the United States are putting local funds into the infrastructure and services of public transport through major voting initiatives.
In the future, urban automation will undergo a process of partial automation to complete automation. In the early period, the city will carry out strategic investment, prepare for the connection of automation technology, and carry out the two ways of bicycle and walking to a large extent. The speed limit will be reduced to 20 miles per hour, setting dynamic pricing for the sidewalk. This kind of pricing will also be released and implemented first in American cities. Under the combined effect of the above factors, the demand for the use of walking, bicycle and core transport has surged, and the city is welcome to all vehicle sharing times. More and more cities have begun to implement VMT (Vehicle Miles Traveled) Pricing in order to reduce the level of urban congestion. In the end, that is, urban vehicles are fully autonomous, and VMT is further reduced to achieve a real people-oriented.
Three, driverless cars and city streets in the future
Refinement, the future construction of city streets should pay attention to the following twelve points:
Two-way operation: in the connected vehicle environment, the streets can be operated in both directions. However, two-way operation can not be taken at the expense of pedestrian flow, and intermediate or transfer platforms are also needed.
Each lane in only one direction: on the highway outside the street should be limited to a single lane only a single direction, which does not include special transit lane; residential streets can be designed to avoid pedestrians “ ” streets; the main street bus or rail service should provide high capacity.
Lane width: the lane should keep the minimum width. In most cities, 10 feet or smaller lanes can meet the need for lane guidance. In the long run, lanes are not marked with markers, but they should be relatively flat with the sidewalks and the middle lines.
Integrating the design of freight and transfer vehicles: we can make use of limited street space and match with the surrounding infrastructure to adapt to the needs of passengers and freight business.
Management of sidewalk requirements: future cities can manage the sidewalk environment more easily and dynamically. The sidewalks can provide various functions in one day, such as public space, bicycle sharing stations, information kiosks, and so on.
Flexible mobile hub: passengers can get off at the designated hub site.
Management of traffic gap distance: as more passengers are integrated into multipurpose vehicles, pedestrians will have frequent cross - Street opportunities and security will be greatly improved.
Street Technology: sensors and other real-time mobility management technologies will be embedded in the car as much as possible, bringing greater convenience.
Sub pattern management Street: shared space can define the future of street operation. Motor vehicles will be restricted to low speed on many streets, reducing the pressure of the passage.
Time management: in different periods, the streets can be actively managed according to different needs. For example, pedestrians may trigger closure when they reach certain thresholds, and the streets are temporarily running at a speed of 10 miles per hour.
Lower and more stable speed: in the center of the city, the speed of the car is limited to less than 20 miles per hour.
Pedestrians should be detected rather than connected: people do not have to carry sensors or signal lights to ensure safety. The vehicle should ensure that pedestrians can be detected in all circumstances and not to cause harm to pedestrians on the street.
Urban streets in the era of automation should give priority to pedestrians, cyclists and riders. Smaller and less lanes can reduce the conflict between vehicles and pedestrians, and leave space for the bike lanes on all streets. The bus should run on the special lane and become the backbone of the urban traffic system. The sidewalks can be more flexible and support more public and private uses. The speed limit is 20 miles per hourThe overall driveway of private cars will be greatly reduced. As a result, the capacity of special transport lanes and public vehicles will be greatly improved. Future urban streets will bring value increments for each user through sound design and wise policies.
In the implementation of these policies, we can imagine the future of city streets, such as picture “ ”
Seamless Street Management: the cities in the future can manage the streets seamlessly to reduce the negative impact of private cars on urban life. The space occupied by the infrastructure of the vehicle will be greatly reduced and the streets will be returned to people's lives (as shown below).
Minimize the cross distance: the size of the driveway and intersection will be greatly reduced, so as to minimize cross distance and improve pedestrian experience.
A completely independent bicycle lane and a wide sidewalk can improve the feeling of street space. Low speed can allow pedestrian safety to switch to any lane (as shown below).
Pedestrians will be given priority to every inch of the street in the future. Under the rules, driving vehicles will create a safe and pleasant street environment for pedestrians at a short distance at the crossroads (as follows).
Frequent vehicle gaps give pedestrians the opportunity to cross the street and do not take too much time. Complex signals can also delay the time of vehicles and pedestrians to some extent (as shown below).
In the future, each of the different types of streets will play different roles in order to achieve more efficient and more humanized urban street management. Such as multiway Boulevard in each direction only a traffic channel; central city road will give priority to the vehicle to provide barrier free passage of space; the main transit Street will be staff activities together; residential streets can flush the sidewalks and green infrastructure into the heart of the city; the secondary crossroads can become a hub the center of bicycles, cars and other mobile services.
Four, consider the safety design and
The transformation of transport technology provides a rethinking opportunity for how to operate the streets and how cities manage traffic flow. To this end, NACTO presents a series of notes and assumptions about road design in this report.
1, more frequent and more safe to cross the road /
As far as the current urban streets are concerned, the traffic action is mainly concentrated at the crossroads or intersections. Pedestrians can only cross the road at the crossroads, and there will be obvious delays when they arrive at their destination. And the sidewalks are very narrow, and cyclists usually have to share a lane with the driving vehicle.
In the era of automation, vehicles will be optimized and running at low speed. Less lanes and traversing distances will let “ go directly across the street ” (technically a cross block) will again become normal. Frequent and formal midway crossing points (every 50-100 feet), coupled with sufficient space for motorized lanes, will reduce the burden of the crossroads.
2, the stopping distance
In order to give street users a safe street environment, active speed programming and management can be carried out in urban centers, such as vehicle speed limit below 20 mph. If the parking distance is 60 feet and the speed limit is 35 mph, the parking distance is 11 feet and the speed limit is 15 mph.
3, the car from
In the future, the city can avoid uninsurable freeway like main road, and have multiple rows of traffic arteries at the same time. As more passengers are integrated into multi-purpose vehicles, and with enough space between vehicles and multi row roads, pedestrians will have more secure and efficient crossing experience.
4, to the roundabout at the intersection of
In the driving environment of an unmanned vehicle, the crossroads can accommodate more flow of traffic. Some small intersections are also likely to be slow - running roundabout, rather than continuous stay and movement.
5, on and off
At present, in order to put down passengers, the vehicles of the main streets should turn right first, which is bound to cause a certain traffic jam. In the future, parking spaces on main streets can be shut down, which will not only reduce congestion of main roads, but also make more space for other sidewalks.
6, a shorter distance across
Narrow lanes allow shorter crosses. When the collocation and short road, pedestrian and vehicle delay distance can be reduced to a minimum. For example, now across a distance of 40 feet, the short road of future can be reduced to 2 for 8 feet.
Five, the new mobile &mdash system; — the maximum efficiency of
In the future, the city can maximize the transport capacity of travel lanes by means of the power of technology to allow more people to travel in the limited space. However, if a single vehicle occupies a dominant position, it is difficult for the city to achieve the maximum capacity. Bicycles and high capacity transportation must be a key component of the street and have a special area.In order to meet the action needs of a large number of residents.
The above figure is an example. The first half indicates the current hourly traffic volume of the urban street, and the latter half indicates the hourly carrying capacity of the future city after the application of the new mobile system. It needs to be explained that the two are operated on the assumption that the width of the lane is 10 feet, and the traffic volume standard of 1000 people per hour. First, the most obvious comparison should be the new bus or railway Lane in the future city, which can reach 10000-25000 per hour. From the bicycle lane, the capacity of the protected bicycle lane is likely to be 4 times that of the current - 4000 people per hour. However, the two in the volume of the sidewalk, mixed lane and private car lane did not show differences, the two part of the sidewalk are 9000 people per hour traffic, traffic lanes are mixed between 1000-2800, while the private car lane (driving the car for private cars, the lower part of the carrying capacity is divided into no) it is 600-1600 per hour.
NACTO has shown us a blueprint for future urban streets and automation through a full 60 pages of reports. One of the most interesting points is that, based on the premise of people-oriented and through a series of management of urban streets, people in the future cities will probably return to &lsquo, &rsquo and cross roads. Whether it's AI, car networking, automation, driverless, these technologies will ultimately release the nature of human nature to the maximum.Let everyone be comfortable and comfortable to stay.